What are Opiates?


opiate is a substance made up of opium or maybe has a certain amount of opium in it. Opiates are mainly used to treat pain and cause sleep. it is also a type of drug used by Doctors it acts as a depressant on the central nervous system it can be prescribed as pills and injection doctors manly use it for patients who suffer a serious injury after surgery or chronic pain

 However they are highly addictive continuous use of opiate may develop a disorder known as substance abuse disorder which is dangerous for mental and physical health. these are useful for medical treatment but are highly addictive as well.

Example: heroin, codeine, morphine, hydrocode, codeine, fentanyl.

Types of opiate

there are two types of opiate 

  • antagonists.
  • Agonists

Antagonists: these are less addictive than agonists but still it is not safe. They are used for the detoxification process, which is the first part of addiction treatment. 

Example: Naloxone and Naltrexone

Agonist: Agonists emulate the impacts of normally happening endorphins in the body and produce a narcotic outcome by collaborating with explicit receptor locales in the cerebrum. Agonists incorporate medications like morphine and fentanyl, which are most regularly utilized in clinical settings and have the most grounded impacts. Numerous substances in this class have an exceptionally high potential for misuse and dependence. Different instances of agonists incorporate hydrocodone, oxycodone, heroin, and buprenorphine.

Opiate uses and misuses : 

1) more than 26 million people worldwide misuse opiates. 

2)Over 2 million adults suffer from substance abuse problems related to the misuse of opiate painkillers. 

3) opiate painkillers were prescribed more than 168 million times in 2018. 

4) heroin addiction is common in adults. 

5) in 2010 nearly 17000 people died due to an overdose of opiate pain killer. 

6) people who are addicted to opiates end up using heroin as an available source of opioids.

How it works: 

Humans have opiate receptors located in the brain. Receptors act as active sites for different types of an opiate because of the endogenous brain has these receptors responses in the body similar to those of opiate drug. Opiates work by covering specific receptors that work as pain-relieving Chemicals that are produced naturally these drugs cover the opiate receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the body. This blocks the sense of pain for few hours it will make you feel like you are getting better but they also have Side Effects such as. drowsiness, nausea, and confusion. 

Sign and symptoms:

we can see physical and psychological symptoms of opiate addiction. 

Physical symptoms:

  • nausea
  • confusion
  • headache
  • diarrhea or constipation
  • Euphoria
  • problem in breathing
  • drowsiness 
  • Fatigue 
  • Sweating 

Psychological symptoms :

  • Anxiety 
  • Insomnia 
  • Mood swings 

Some commonly used opiates:

Opiates are a type of drug that can be found in both illegal and legal drugs.

Some commonly used opiates include opium, heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone, oxycodone and hydrocodone.

The usage of opiates has been steadily increasing due to the high demand for them as well as the easy accessibility to them. These drugs are not only popular among people who are addicted to them but also those who just use it occasionally.

Tramadol is the safest kind of opiate. It is commonly misused because of its pleasant effect. A high dose of this opiate can show the feeling of euphoria and regular use is dangerous for health it can lead to convulsions, seizures, and slow breathing. 

Hydrocodone is one of the most commonly prescribed opiates. It contains high addictive properties. Even if you use it as prescribed by your doctor you still have chances of addiction. A high dose of hydrocodone gives feelings of relaxation and euphoria. If you take the drug for its pleasant effect the risk is much higher.